Skip to main content

Water Quality

Water Quality Reports

Water Quality Reports


The evidence supporting the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of fluoridation of community water supplies comes from multiple sources covering 50 years of legitimate research published in peer reviewed journals, including both long term studies on large populations, recent confirmatory studies, and comprehensive literature reviews.  Adding fluoride to drinking water is an important element in promotion of dental health along with education and access to dental care.


Top Ten Facts About Fluoride

• Fluoride is a community health measure that benefits people of all ages, income levels, and ethnicity.

• Fluoride protects over 300 million people in more than 40 countries worldwide, with over 10,000 communities and 145 million people in the United States alone.

• Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral in all water supplies and when adjusted to optimal levels, is effective in reducing tooth decay.

• Fluoride is not a medicine. Fluoride is a naturally occurring element and a nutrient. (Reference: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, 2004. National Academy Press, Washington DC)

• Multiple studies over the years done in several countries and the United States show that fluoridation can reduce tooth decay by 60% in baby teeth and up to 35% in adult teeth. When fluoride was discontinued, there were large increases in the incident of tooth decay, especially in children. (Reference:

• Poor children suffer disproportionably more cavities than middle or upper income children. Children from families earning less than $20,000 annually have 10 times more unmet dental care needs than children from families earning $50,000 annually.

• Water fluoridation is the best way to get fluoride. Topical application is better than nothing but not nearly as effective as water fluoridation. Pills are expensive and all too often not administered correctly.

• Water fluoridation is SAFE! Multiple studies show that adjustment to appropriate levels does not pose a health risk for the public. Fluoride at recommended levels has been used for more than 50 years with no side effects. Visit for more information.

• Water fluoridation saves money! Do the math- it costs approximately 50 cents per person per year to receive fluoridated water in Arcata. One single filling for a cavity can be well over $100!

• Oral health is a critical component of overall health and well-being. Good oral health is critical for quality of life and psychosocial health.

Facts on Lead

DEP Press Release on lead levels in Pennsylvania water:

Analysis of public water systems in Pennsylvania

Harrisburg, PA – An analysis of public water systems in Pennsylvania cities with high lead exposure rates shows that drinking water is not the source of the lead.
Out of the more than 150 public water systems reviewed by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) none had exceeded EPA standards for lead in the drinking water. The water systems tested serve more than 6 million people – nearly half of the residents of the state.
“We can definitively say that none of these 159 water systems have exceeded EPA action levels for lead. This eliminates one of the possible sources for the exposure,” said DEP Secretary John Quigley. “DEP has regulations and programs in place to monitor lead levels in drinking water, and they are working.”
According to Department of Health, the primary source of childhood lead poisoning in Pennsylvania continues to be exposure to aging, deteriorating lead-based paint (chips and dust), and not drinking water.
The age of Pennsylvania's housing stock contributes to this problem. While lead was banned from paint in 1978, many older dwellings still contain layers of pre-1978 paint.
According to 2010 Census data, Pennsylvania ranks third in the nation for having the most housing units identified as having been built before 1950 (when lead was more prevalent) and fourth in the nation for housing units identified as having been built before 1978, according to a 2014 Department of Health report.
Public water systems must regularly sample water from the homes they serve. These tests target homes known to have lead pipes, lead solder, or lead service lines. The EPA action level for lead is 15 parts per billion (ppb) or 0.015 milligrams per liter. If 90% of tested homes are below the 15 ppb action level, a water system is considered safe.
Pennsylvania residents on public water systems can see the results of the most recent testing by visiting DEP’s Consumer Confidence Report and searching by their water system name or by the county they live in (on the results page, contaminant 1022 is copper, 1030 is lead).
Pennsylvania residents are encouraged to visit for more information on lead in drinking water.
The Department of Health provides a toll-free Lead Information Line (1-800-440-LEAD) to respond to caller questions and provide electronic materials about lead poisoning and other environmental hazards. For more information, please also visit the Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention FAQ.